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真空镀膜机蒸镀工艺和溅镀工艺常见问题

发布时间:2021-07-15阅读量:144
导读:真空镀膜机常见的两种镀膜工艺,蒸镀,溅镀,这两种工艺目前使用最普及,广泛,那么随之而来的,它的关注度自然也是别的工艺高很多,因为在真空蒸镀完之后还要喷一层UV光油面漆,这层面漆上可以做不同的颜色.蒸镀通过镀一些硅化物可以做成七彩色,但比较薄,近看可以,远看不明显 ...

        真空镀膜机常见的两种镀膜工艺,蒸镀、溅镀,这两种工艺目前使用最普及、广泛,那么随之而来的,它的关注度自然也是别的工艺高很多,下面汇成真空小编为大家详细解汇总了四条关于真空镀膜机这两种工艺的常见问题,希望能帮助到大家:

        一、为什么真空镀膜可以做成不同的颜色,还有七彩色?
        因为在真空蒸镀完之后还要喷一层UV光油面漆,这层面漆上可以做不同的颜色。蒸镀通过镀一些硅化物可以做成七彩色,但比较薄,近看可以,远看不明显,;溅射通过CSi、CO、Si等物质进行反应镀可镀出七彩色,或者通过低温多层不同颜色的镀膜来呈现多彩。而水电镀的一般为金属本色,要呈现其他颜色的需要涂UV面漆然后UV照射。 
        二、真空蒸镀和真空溅镀的镀膜的吸附性差异的原因?
        蒸镀是附着,溅射是正负电极的强烈吸附,所以溅射的吸附更均匀密度也更大硬度也大,价格溅射比蒸镀要贵10%——20%。 
        三、为什么真空镀膜可以做成半透效果而且不导电?
        并非完全不导电,利用了分子在薄膜状态下的不连续性金属或金属化合物都具有导电性,只是导电率不同。但是,当金属或金属化合物呈一种薄膜的状态时,其相应的物理特性会有所不同。常规的镀膜材料中,如:银是银白效果和导电性能最好的金属,但它厚度在5纳米以下时,它是不导电的;铝的银白效果和导电性比银稍微差一些,但它厚度在0.9纳米时,就已经具备导电性。为什么会这样呢?那是因为银分子的连续性没有铝的好,所以在相对膜厚下,它的导电性反而较差。我们真空镀金属不导电膜其实就是利用了某些金属的分子连续性差的原理,把它厚度控制在某个范围,使其具备银白色外观并且电阻超大。由此可见,金属不导电膜的效果跟它的膜厚是直接相关的。只有在相对应的膜厚下,才能得到相应稳定的银白色不导电膜。 
        上面已经讲到,银白效果和导电性能最好的银在5纳米以下的厚度时,它是不导电的,那么,是不是可以用银来做我们需要的金属不导电膜呢?答案是否定的。因为5纳米以下厚度的银基本上是透明无色的,尽管它不导电,但它不能同时具备银白色反光膜的效果。同样,铝也不行。所以,我们需要一种能够镀出银白色金属光泽并具有较大的电阻金属材料。我们采用的是纯度在99.99%以上左右的锡或铟及铟锡合金。厚度在30纳米以下的锡,连续性相当的差,但能取得银白色金属光泽并具有较大的电阻。铟也是一样,但铟的银白色反光率更胜于锡的外观,因为价格较高,我们采用铟锡合金,这样既能得到不导电膜又能得到更白更亮的反光金属效果!镀铟锡不导电膜都是半透明的,所以我们要求被镀基材为透明或黑色为佳。因为镀铟锡都是在250度就开始溶化,所以蒸发的温度也相对较低,这样加热熔化及蒸发的电流和时间相对也较低。 
        四、为什么真空镀膜的镀铝不导电?
        因为镀膜总共有三层,最外层的UV光油经UV照射后起到固化耐磨绝缘的作用,但是一旦这层膜被破坏就导电了。
 
        真空镀膜机蒸镀镀膜工艺、溅镀镀膜工艺,不仅仅只有这四种常见问题,但是却是最常见、关注度最高的四种问题。


There are two common coating processes of vacuum coater, evaporation and splashing. These two processes are the most popular and widely used at present. Then, it naturally attracts more attention from other processes. The following is a summary of four common problems about these two processes of vacuum coater, hoping to help you:

        1、 Why can vacuum coating be made into different colors and seven colors?

        Because after the vacuum evaporation, we need to spray a layer of UV varnish, which can be painted in different colors. Evaporation can be made into seven colors by depositing some silicide, but it is relatively thin. It can be seen from near, but not from far,; Seven colors can be obtained by reactive sputtering with CSI, Co, Si and other materials, or colorful colors can be obtained by low-temperature multi-layer coating with different colors. And water electroplating is generally metal color, to present other colors need to apply UV topcoat, and then UV irradiation.  

        2、 What is the reason for the difference of adsorption between vacuum evaporated and vacuum sputtered coatings?

        Evaporation is adhesion, sputtering is strong adsorption of positive and negative electrodes, so the adsorption of sputtering is more uniform, the density is greater, and the hardness is greater. The price of sputtering is 10% - 20% higher than that of evaporation.  

        3、 Why can vacuum coating be made semi transparent and non-conductive?

        It is not completely non-conductive, because of the discontinuity of molecules in the film state, metals or metal compounds have conductivity, but the conductivity is different. However, when the metal or metal compound is in a thin film state, its corresponding physical properties will be different. Among the conventional coating materials, such as silver is the metal with the best silver white effect and conductivity, but when its thickness is less than 5 nm, it is not conductive; The silver white effect and conductivity of aluminum are slightly worse than that of silver, but when its thickness is 0.9 nm, it already has conductivity. Why is that? That's because the continuity of silver molecule is not as good as that of aluminum, so its conductivity is poor under the relative film thickness. In fact, we use the principle of poor molecular continuity of some metals to control its thickness in a certain range, so that it has a silver white appearance and high resistance. It can be seen that the effect of metal non-conductive film is directly related to its film thickness. Only in the corresponding film thickness, the corresponding stable silver white non-conductive film can be obtained.  

        As mentioned above, silver with the best silver white effect and conductivity is non-conductive when its thickness is less than 5 nm. Can we use silver to make the metal non-conductive film we need? The answer is No. Because the thickness of silver below 5 nm is basically transparent and colorless, although it is not conductive, it can not have the effect of silver white reflective film at the same time. Similarly, aluminum is not good. Therefore, we need a kind of metal material which can be plated with silver white metallic luster and high resistance. We use tin or indium and indium tin alloy with purity above 99.99%. Tin with thickness less than 30 nm has poor continuity, but can achieve silver white metallic luster and high resistance. Indium is the same, but the silver white reflectance of indium is better than that of tin. Because the price is higher, we use indium tin alloy, which can not only get a non-conductive film, but also get a whiter and brighter reflective metal effect! Indium tin non-conductive film is translucent, so we require the substrate to be transparent or black. Because indium and tin begin to melt at 250 ℃, the temperature of evaporation is relatively low, so the current and time of heating, melting and evaporation are relatively low.  

        4、 Why is the aluminum coating of vacuum coating not conductive?

        Because the coating has three layers in total, the outermost UV varnish has the function of curing wear-resistant insulation after UV irradiation, but once the film is damaged, it will conduct electricity.

 

        There are not only four kinds of common problems in vacuum coating machine evaporation coating process and splash coating process, but they are the most common and most concerned problems.

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