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DLC (类金刚石镀膜(Diamond-like carbon))
“DLC”是英文“DIAMOND-LIKE CARBON”一词的缩写。DLC是一种由碳元素构成、在性质上和钻石类似,同时又具有石墨原子组成结构的物质。类金刚石薄膜(DLC)是一种非晶态薄膜,由于具有高硬度和高弹性模量,低摩擦因数,耐磨损以及良好的真空摩擦学特性,很适合于作为耐磨涂层,从而引起了摩擦学界的重视。
1、力学性能
a.硬度及弹性模量。不同的沉积方法制备的DLC膜硬度及弹性模量差异很大,用磁过滤阴极电弧法可以制备出硬度达到甚至超过金刚石的DLC膜。
b.内应力和结合强度。薄膜的内应力和结合强度是决定薄膜的稳定性和使用寿命,影响薄膜性能的两个重要因素,内应力高和结合强度低的DLC膜容易在应用中产生裂纹、褶皱,甚至脱落,所以制备的DLC膜最好具有适中的压应力和较高的结合强度。
2、摩擦性能
DLC膜不仅具有优异的耐磨性,而且具有很低的摩擦系数,一般低于0.2,是一种优异的表面抗磨损改性膜。DLC的摩擦系数随制备工艺的不同和膜中成分的变化而变化,其摩擦系数最低可达0.005[13]。掺杂金属元素可能降低其摩擦系数,但加入H能提高润滑作用,环境也对摩擦系数有一定的影响。但总的来说,DLC膜与传统的硬质薄膜(如上述的TiN、TiC、TiAlN等)相比,在摩擦系数方面具有明显优势,这些传统硬质薄膜的摩擦系数都在0.4以上。因此,DLC膜有可能在许多摩擦学领域替代这些传统硬膜。
3、热稳定性
由于DLC属亚稳态的材料,热稳定性差是限制DLC膜应用的一个重要因素,在300℃以上退火时即出现了sp3键向sp2键转变,为此,人们进行了大量的工作试图提高其热稳定性。有研究发现:Si的加入可以明显改善DLC膜的热稳定性,含20 at%Si的DLC膜在740℃退火时才出现sp3键向sp2键转变。同样,金属(如Ti、W、Cr)的掺入也可提高DLC膜的热稳定性。
4、耐腐蚀性
纯DLC膜具有优异的耐蚀性,各类酸、碱甚至王水都很难侵蚀它。但掺杂有其他元素的DLC膜的耐蚀性有所下降,这是由于掺杂的元素首先被侵蚀,从而破坏了膜的连续性所致。
5、表面状态
DLC膜表面一般较光洁,对基材的表面光洁度没有太大的影响,但随着膜厚的增加,表面光洁度会下降。不同的沉积方法所得到的DLC膜表面光洁度也是不同的。
DLC膜具有很好的抗粘结性,特别是对有色金属(如铜、铝、锌等),对塑料、橡胶、陶瓷等也有抗粘结性。
类金刚石(DLC)涂层技术:
不同类型的类金刚石涂层,具有不同的生产技术。DLC涂层适用于极端磨损情况和高相对速度,甚至是在无润滑运转的条件下使用,具有卓越的耐磨蚀性、抗摩擦氧化性和附着性(防磨损),可承受在正常条件下会立刻导致磨损和冷焊的表面压力,将摩擦损失降至最小,良好的耐腐蚀性使基体免受破坏性攻击。
DLC膜被称为非晶碳膜,具有卓越的耐磨蚀性、抗摩擦氧化性和附着性,适用于极端磨损情况和高相对速度使用。


DLC (diamond like carbon)

"DLC" is the abbreviation of "diamond-like carbon". DLC is a kind of material which is composed of carbon, similar to diamond in nature, and has graphite atomic structure. Diamond like carbon (DLC) film is a kind of amorphous film, because of its high hardness and high elastic modulus, low friction coefficient, wear resistance and good vacuum tribological properties, it is very suitable for wear-resistant coating, which has attracted the attention of tribological circles.

1. Mechanical properties

a. Hardness and elastic modulus. The hardness and elastic modulus of DLC films prepared by different deposition methods are very different. DLC films with hardness up to or even higher than diamond can be prepared by magnetic filtered cathode arc method.

b. Internal stress and bonding strength. The internal stress and bonding strength of DLC film are two important factors that determine the stability and service life of the film and affect the performance of the film. The DLC film with high internal stress and low bonding strength is easy to crack, fold and even fall off in the application, so the DLC film had better have moderate compressive stress and high bonding strength.

2. Friction performance

DLC film not only has excellent wear resistance, but also has very low friction coefficient, generally less than 0.2, which is an excellent surface anti-wear modified film. The friction coefficient of DLC varies with the preparation process and the composition of the film, and the lowest friction coefficient can reach 0.005 [13]. Doping metal elements may reduce the friction coefficient, but adding h can improve the lubrication effect, and the environment also has a certain influence on the friction coefficient. But in general, DLC film has obvious advantages in friction coefficient compared with traditional hard films (such as tin, tic, TiAlN, etc.), and the friction coefficient of these traditional hard films is more than 0.4. Therefore, DLC film may replace these traditional hard coatings in many tribological fields.

3. Thermal stability

Because DLC is a metastable material, the poor thermal stability is an important factor limiting the application of DLC films. When annealed at above 300 ℃, SP3 bond changes to SP2 bond. Therefore, a lot of work has been done to improve the thermal stability of DLC films. It has been found that the thermal stability of DLC films can be significantly improved by the addition of Si. The SP3 to SP2 bond transition of DLC films containing 20 at% Si occurs only after annealing at 740 ℃. The thermal stability of DLC films can also be improved by the addition of metal (such as Ti, W, Cr).

4. Corrosion resistance

Pure DLC film has excellent corrosion resistance, which is difficult to be eroded by various acids, alkalis and even aqua regia. However, the corrosion resistance of DLC films doped with other elements decreases because the doped elements are eroded first, which destroys the continuity of the films.

5. Surface state

The surface of DLC film is generally smooth, which has little effect on the surface finish of substrate, but with the increase of film thickness, the surface finish will decrease. The surface finish of DLC films obtained by different deposition methods is also different.

DLC film has good adhesion resistance, especially for non-ferrous metals (such as copper, aluminum, zinc, etc.), plastics, rubber, ceramics, etc.

Diamond like carbon (DLC) coating technology:

Different types of diamond-like carbon coatings have different production technologies. DLC coating is suitable for extreme wear and high relative speed, even under the condition of no lubrication operation. It has excellent wear resistance, anti-oxidation and adhesion (anti-wear). It can withstand the surface pressure that will immediately cause wear and cold welding under normal conditions, and minimize the friction loss. Good corrosion resistance can protect the substrate from destructive attack.

DLC film, known as amorphous carbon film, has excellent wear resistance, anti-oxidation and adhesion, which is suitable for extreme wear and high relative speed applications.

 

类金刚石(DLC)涂层技术:
不同类型的类金刚石涂层,具有不同的生产技术。DLC涂层适用于极端磨损情况和高相对速度,甚至是在无润滑运转的条件下使用,具有卓越的耐磨蚀性、抗摩擦氧化性和附着性(防磨损),可承受在正常条件下会立刻导致磨损和冷焊的表面压力,将摩擦损失降至最小,良好的耐腐蚀性使基体免受破坏性攻击。
DLC膜被称为非晶碳膜,具有卓越的耐磨蚀性、抗摩擦氧化性和附着性,适用于极端磨损情况和高相对速度使用。

Diamond like carbon (DLC) coating technology:

Different types of diamond-like carbon coatings have different production technologies. DLC coating is suitable for extreme wear and high relative speed, even under the condition of no lubrication operation. It has excellent wear resistance, anti-oxidation and adhesion (anti-wear). It can withstand the surface pressure that will immediately cause wear and cold welding under normal conditions, and minimize the friction loss. Good corrosion resistance can protect the substrate from destructive attack.

DLC film, known as amorphous carbon film, has excellent wear resistance, anti-oxidation and adhesion, which is suitable for extreme wear and high relative speed applications.

DLC涂层类型:
a - C             无氢非晶碳膜
ta - C            四面体无氢非晶碳膜
a - C:Me       金属掺杂无氯非晶碳膜(Me=W,
a - C:H          含氢非晶碳膜
ta - C:H         四面体含氢非晶碳膜
a - C:H:Me    金属掺杂含氢非晶碳膜(Me=W,
a - C:H:X       改性含氯非晶碳膜(X=Si,


DLC coating type:

a - C               Hydrogen free amorphous carbon film

ta - C             Tetrahedral hydrogen free amorphous carbon films

a - C:Me         Metal doped chlorine free amorphous carbon films (me = w,

a - C:H           Amorphous carbon films containing hydrogen

ta - C:H           Tetrahedral amorphous carbon films containing hydrogen

a - C:H:Me     Metal doped amorphous carbon films containing hydrogen (me = w,

a - C:H:X         Modified amorphous carbon film containing chlorine (x = Si,

应用:
1、钻头、铣刀
DLC膜可以应用于钻头和铣刀上,特别是掺杂金属的DLC膜,它不仅具有高的硬度,还具有低的摩擦系数、抗有色金属粘结。荷兰的Hauzer公司制备的掺金属DLC膜层,用于切削高强度铝合金时,能减少表面所谓的切屑瘤。结果是延长工具的寿命并使工件材料在切削后表面光滑。特别是在干切削和深孔加工方面,膜层性能非常好。
2、光盘模具及其辅助模具
光盘模具是生产CD、CDR、DVD的重要工具,为了减少它与母盘(镍盘)的摩擦,希望模具表面硬且摩擦系数小,目前,国外大多采用DLC膜层,大大提高了模具的寿命和盘片的质量。镀膜之后有硬度高,摩擦系数低,耐磨,耐腐蚀,抗粘结性好且环保等特点。
3、芯轴
DLC膜的耐磨减摩及耐腐蚀性,可显著提高齿轮、芯轴等运动部件的使用性能及寿命。
4、刀片上的应用
现在DLC也在各种刀片如剪刀、刮胡刀等上的应用。DLC膜减小了刀片与皮肤的摩擦,改善了刀片的性能,延长了使用寿命。
5、关键零部件上的应用
DLC膜在许多关键零部件也能发挥其优良的性能,比如在活塞上的应用利用其低的摩擦系数,降低摩擦力,提高耐磨性,达到无油润滑及使用寿命要求。在缝纫机配件旋梭上镀DLC膜替代原来的电镀硬铬处理,不但避免了污染环境的问题,而且,明显提高工件表面硬度及耐磨性,使用寿命提高了10倍以上,同时,也因表面膜层摩擦系数降低后,使机器运行过程中产生的噪音变小。
6、其它应用
DLC膜在工模具上的应用其它例子非常多,如:粉末冶金成型模具、塑胶成型模具、引线框弯曲模具、玻璃片成型模具、镁合金加工模具、在轴承等。


Application:

1. Drill, milling cutter

DLC film can be applied to drill bit and milling cutter, especially metal doped DLC film. It has not only high hardness, but also low friction coefficient and anti-ferrous metal bonding. The metal doped DLC film prepared by Hauser company in Holland can reduce the so-called chip bump on the surface of high strength aluminum alloy. The result is a longer tool life and a smoother surface of the workpiece material after cutting. Especially in dry cutting and deep hole processing, the film has very good performance.

2. Optical disc mould and its auxiliary mould

The die for CD, CDR and DVD is an important tool to produce CD, CDR and DVD. In order to reduce the friction between the die and the master disk (nickel disk), we hope that the die surface is hard and the friction coefficient is small. At present, most foreign countries use DLC film, which greatly improves the life of the die and the quality of the disk. After coating, it has the characteristics of high hardness, low friction coefficient, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, good adhesion resistance and environmental protection.

3. Mandrel

The wear resistance, friction reduction and corrosion resistance of DLC film can significantly improve the service performance and service life of gear, mandrel and other moving parts.

4. Application on blade

Now DLC is also used in all kinds of blades, such as scissors, razors and so on. The DLC film reduces the friction between the blade and the skin, improves the performance of the blade and prolongs its service life.

5. Application on key parts

DLC film can also play its excellent performance in many key parts, such as the application in piston. By using its low friction coefficient, it can reduce friction, improve wear resistance, and meet the requirements of oil-free lubrication and service life. Instead of the original plating hard chromium treatment, the DLC coating on the sewing machine shuttle spindle not only avoids the problem of polluting the environment, but also significantly improves the surface hardness and wear resistance of the workpiece, and the service life is increased by more than 10 times. At the same time, because of the reduction of the friction coefficient of the surface film layer, the noise generated during the running of the machine becomes smaller.

6. Other applications

There are many other applications of DLC film in tooling, such as powder metallurgy molding mold, plastic molding mold, lead frame bending mold, glass molding mold, magnesium alloy processing mold, in bearing and so on.

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